The main definitions

02.12.2014. 19:09

Development cooperation – provision of various types of assistance to poor and less-developed countries to foster their long-term social and economic development and therefore to contribute in poverty reduction on the world

According to the OECD/DAC classification, the term "development cooperation" does not include commercial activities or military activities. However, time spent by soldiers and state/local government funds used for non-military goals, e.g., for restoring schools destroyed during war, is considered development cooperation. The goal of development cooperation activities should be civil.

Official development assistance (ODA) -  state, municipality and its executive body assistance to developing country  (See. Country classification according to the OECD/DAC) with the aim to foster their economic development and welfare.

Development cooperation policy – a set of principles defined in political documents (guidelines, target countries, co-operations areas) to implement development co-operation.

Receiving country – a country which receives assistance.

Donor country – a country which provides assistance.

Developing country – according to the OECD/DAC classification, all countries that have been included in the first part of the DAC list. E.g. Afghanistan, Armenia, Georgia, Bangladesh, Haiti, Turkey, Moldova, Uzbekistan, Venezuela.

Countries in transition/transition countries/transition economies – e. g., Ukraine, Belarus (according to OECD/DAC).

Least developed countries (LDC) –a group of 50 countries that have been identified by the UN as "least developed" in terms of their low GDP per capita (750-900 USD), their weak human assets and their high degree of economic vulnerability.

Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPIC) 40 development countries with a big burden of debts that are considered the poorest countries. As defined by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, these are the countries whose GDP per capita is USD 695 or less and the amount of debt is higher than 80% of GDP.

Millennium Development Goals – in 2000 the world heads of states and governments committed themselves to reaching the Millennium Development Goals to foster the welfare of the world's inhabitants by 2015.

Consultative Council in Development Cooperation Policy Issues a consultative institution that participates in solving issues pertaining to the development cooperation policy. It was established by the Prime Minister's Order of 3 June 2003.

Development Cooperation Board a collegiate institution making decisions necessary for the achievement of development cooperation goals stipulated in the Development Cooperation Policy Plan of the respective year and adopted by a Cabinet of Ministers' order.

Bilateral assistance – a development cooperation project in a development cooperation recipient country, either fully or partially financed by the Republic of Latvia.

Trilateral cooperation – a development cooperation project in a development cooperation recipient country, that, in addition to being financed by the Latvian government, is also financed by another donor country or international organisation, or where the Latvian government is participating by way of co-financing.

Multilateral assistance – provision of assistance to receiving countries by payments to international organisations. The international organisations, in their turn, use the allocated funding according to their discretion and priorities.

Grant programme – planned state support to NGOs, businessmen and public persons abroad. The grant programme is implemented by means of regular project tenders during which the compliance of the proposed projects, and their impact on the defined development cooperation policy targets, is assessed, and a decision made to either approve or refuse the grant.

Grant – a non-commercial type of direct payment the grant recipient (project executor) to ensure implementation of the project allowing for achievement of the set development cooperation policy targets.

Project – any type of non-commercial activity undertaken in a development cooperation recipient country, usually having strict time limitations, clearly defined executors, recipients, responsible persons, and predictable results.

Programme – a broader range of activities than a project, often comprising several individual projects with common objectives.

Technical assistance – according to the OECD DAC definition, the transfer of knowledge (expertise) by way of staff, training, research work and financing.

Debt cancellation – type of aid in which the donor country cancels the previous indebtedness.

Tied aid – a type of bilateral assistance used to purchase/use goods or services from the donor country.

Untied aid – providing assistance with no requirement (to purchase/use goods or services from the donor country). Assistance providers outside the country's borders may also apply (e.g., by way of an open tender in which NGOs both from Latvia and other countries may apply).

Non-Governmental Development Organization (NGDO) – non-profit, non-governmental organisation whose participants are active in international development cooperation on a voluntary basis. Main fields of activity: poverty reduction, social equality, human rights.

Latvian Platform for Development Cooperation (LAPAS) – an association of NGOs that are active or whish to be active in transfer of the accumulated expertise and experience to transition countries and developing countries. The aim of the platform is to foster a favourable environment to Latvian NGOs and opportunities for development cooperation at national and international levels.

Humanitarian assistance/ humanitarian aid – planned assistance provided to relieve or reduce the results of natural or man-made disasters or other adverse conditions such as pain, disease, hunger, or privation that might present a serious threat to life.